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Law of Inheritance in Islam Pakistan

Law of Inheritance in Islam

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
اللہ تمہاری اولاد کے بارے میں تمہیں ارشاد فرماتے ہیں کہ ایک لڑکے کا حصہ دو لڑکیوں کے حصہ کے برابر ہے اور اگر اولاد میں صرف لڑکیاں ہی ہوں یعنی دو یا دو سے زیادہ تو کل ترکے میں ان کا دو تہائی اور اگر صرف ایک لڑکی ہو تو اس کا حصہ نصف اور میت کے ماں باپ (والدین) کا یعنی دونوں میں سے ہر ایک کا ترکے میں چھٹا حصہ ہے شرط یہ ہے کہ میت کے اولاد ہو اور اگر اولاد نہ ہو صرف ماں باپ ہی اس کے وارث ہوں تو ایک تہائی حصہ ما ں کا اگر میت کے بھائی ہوں تو ماں کا چھٹا حصہ،یہ تمام ترکہ کی تقسیم بعداز تعمیل وصیت میت کے بعدجو اس نے کی ہو یا قرض جو کہ میت پر ادا کرنا ابھی باقی ہوکی ادئیگی کے بعد ہو گی۔تم کو معلوم نہیں تمہارے آباؤ اجداد(باپ دادؤں) اور اولادں(بیٹو ں پوتوں)میں نفع کے لحاظ سے کون تمہارے زیادہ قریب ہے۔یہ حصے تمہارے پروردگار کی طرف سے مقرر کر دئیے گئے ہیں اور تمہارا پرور دگار سب کچھ جاننے والا ،حکمت والا ہے
(۱۱)
اور جو جائیداد ومال تمہاری عورتیں چھوڑ مریں اگر ان کے اولاد نہ ہو تو اس میں سے آدھا حصہ تمہارا ہے ،اگر اولاد ہو تو ترکہ میں تمہارا حصہ چوتھائی ہے(ترکہ کی تقسیم بعداز تعمیل وصیت میت کے بعدجو اس نے کی ہو یا قرض جو کہ میت پر ادا کرنا ابھی باقی ہوکی ادئیگی کے بعد ہو گی)اور جو مال تم (مرد) چھوڑ کر مرو اگر تمہاری اولاد نہ ہو تو تمہاری عورت کا تمام ترکہ میں چوتھا حصہ ہو گااگر اولاد ہو تو تمہاری عورت(بیوہ) کا آٹھواں حصہ ،اور اگر ایسے مرد ،عورت کی میراث ہو جس کا نہ باپ ہو اور نہ ہی بیٹا مگر اس کے بھائی بہن ہوں تو ان میں سے ہر ایک کا چھٹا حصہ ہو گااور اگر ایک سے زیادہ ہوں تو سب ایک تہائی میں شریک ہوں گے یہ حصے بھی قرض اور وصیت کی ادائیگی کے بعد کئے جائیں گئے۔یہ تمارے پروردگار کا حکم ہے اور تمہارا پروردگار نہائیت علم والا ،حکمت والا ہے۔
(۱۲)
اے نبیؐ لوگ آپ سے کلالہ کے متعلق دریافت کرتے ہیں ان کو کہہ دو اللہ کلالہ کے بارے حکم فرماتے ہیں کہ اگر کوئی ایسا مرد مر جائے جس کے نہ کوئی اولاد ہو ،نہ ہی ما ں باپ،اور اس کی بہن ہو تو اس کو بھائی کے تما م تر کے میں سے آدھا حصہ ملے گا ۔اور اگر بہن مر جائے اور اس کے کوئی بیٹا یا بیٹی نہ ہوتو اس کے تمام مال کا وارث بھائی ہو گااور اگر مرنے والے بھائی کی دو بہنیں ہوں تو دونوں کو بھائی کے ترکے میں سے دو تہائی ملے گا اور اگر بھائی اور بہن یعنی مرد اور عورتیں ملی جلے وارث ہوں تو مرد کا حصہ دو عورتوں کے برابر ہو گا۔یہ احکام تمہار پروردگار کی طرف تم پر لازم ہیں تا کہ بھٹکتے نہ پھرواور تمارا پروردگار تمام علم رکھتا ہے
(۱۷۶)

Prescribed Shares in Surah Nisa in Quran.

1) Husband [Surah Nisa 4:12]
a. Gets 1/2 (Deceased person does not have any children)
b. Gets 1/4 (Deceased person has children)

2) Wife (Equally divided among all wives) [Surah Nisa 4:12]
a. Gets 1/4 (Deceased person does not have any children)
b. Gets 1/8 (Deceased person has children)

3) Daughter (Equally divided among all daughters)
a. Gets 1/2 [Surah Nisa 4:11]
i. Deceased person has only one daughter, and [Surah Nisa 4:11]
ii. Deceased person does not have any sons [Surah Nisa 4:11]
b. Gets 2/3 [Surah Nisa 4:11]
i. Deceased person has multiple daughters, and [Surah Nisa 4:11]
ii. Deceased person does not have any sons [Surah Nisa 4:11]

4) Grand Daughter (from son only)

a. Gets 1/2
i. Deceased person has only one Grand daughter from a son
ii. Deceased person does not have a son or a daughter
iii. Deceased person does not have a Grandson from a son
b. Gets 2/3
i. Deceased person has multiple Granddaughters from a son
ii. Deceased person does not have a son or a daughter
iii. Deceased person does not have a Grandson from a son
c. Gets 1/6 (H1)
i. Deceased person has just one daughter
ii. Deceased person does not have a son
iii. Deceased person does not have a Grandson from a son

5) Father [Surah Nisa 4:11]

a. Gets 1/6 (Deceased person has children)

6) Mother [Surah Nisa 4:11]

a. Gets 1/3
i. Deceased person does not have any children, and
ii. Deceased person does not have multiple siblings (full, paternal, maternal)
b. Gets 1/6
i. Deceased person has children, or
ii. Deceased person has multiple siblings (full, paternal, maternal)

7) Paternal Grand Father

a. Gets 1/6
i. Deceased person does not have a father
ii. Deceased person has children

8) Paternal Grand Mother

a. Gets 1/6
i. Deceased person does not have a mother
ii. Deceased person does not have a father
iii. Deceased person does not have a maternal grandmother
b. Gets 1/12
i. Deceased person does not have a mother
ii. Deceased person does not have a father
iii. Deceased person has a maternal grandmother

9) Maternal Grand Mother
a. Gets 1/6
i. Deceased person does not have a mother
b. Gets 1/12
i. Deceased person does not have a mother
ii. Deceased person does not have a father
iii. Deceased person has a paternal grandmother

10) Full Sister

a. Gets 1/2[Surah Nisa 4:176]
i. Deceased person has only 1 full sister
ii. Deceased person does not have any children
iii. Deceased person does not have any male paternal ancestor
iv. Deceased person does not have any full brother
b. Gets 2/3 [Surah Nisa 4:176]
i. Deceased person has multiple full sisters
ii. Deceased person does not have any children
iii. Deceased person does not have any male paternal ancestor
iv. Deceased person does not have any full brother

11) Paternal Sister

a. Gets 1/2
i. Deceased person has only 1 paternal sister
ii. Deceased person does not have any children
iii. Deceased person does not have any male paternal ancestor
iv. Deceased person does not have any full brother, full sister or paternal brother
b. Gets 2/3
i. Deceased person has multiple paternal sisters
ii. Deceased person does not have any children
iii. Deceased person does not have any male paternal ancestor
iv. Deceased person does not have any full brother, full sister or paternal brother
c. Gets 1/6
i. Deceased person has just 1 full sister
ii. Deceased person does not have any children
iii. Deceased person does not have any male paternal ancestor
iv. Deceased person does not have any full brother or paternal brother

12) Maternal Sibling [Surah Nisa 4:12]
a. Gets 1/6
i. Deceased person has only 1 maternal sibling
ii. Deceased person does not have any male children
iii. Deceased person does not have any male paternal ancestors
b. Gets 1/3
i. Deceased person has multiple maternal siblings
ii. Deceased person does not have any male children
iii. Deceased person does not have any male paternal ancestors Residual Shares (H2)

13) Blocking Rules
a. Son blocks Paternal-Grandson, Paternal-Granddaughter, Full-brother, Full-sister, Paternal-brother, Paternal-sister, Maternal-Brother, Maternal-sister, Full-Nephew, Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

b. Grandson blocks Full-brother, Full-sister, Paternal-brother, Paternal-sister, Maternal-Brother, Maternal-sister, Full-Nephew, Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

c. Father blocks Paternal-Grandfather, Paternal Grand-mother, Full-brother, Full-sister, Paternal-brother, Paternal-sister, Maternal-Brother, Maternal-sister, Full-Nephew, Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

d. Mother blocks Paternal-Grandmother, Maternal-Grandmother

e. Grandfather blocks Full-Nephew, Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

f. Full brother blocks Paternal-brother, Paternal-sister, Full-Nephew, Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

g. Full sister blocks Paternal-brother, Paternal-sister, Full-Nephew, Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son(can blocked only if the Deceased person has at least 1 female-children, otherwise stuck in 2/3 zone)

h. Paternal brother blocks Full-Nephew, Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

i. Paternal-sister blocks Full-Nephew, Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son’s-son(can blocked only, if the Deceased person has either at least 1 female-children or at least 2 sisters, otherwise stuck in 2/3 zone)

j. Full-Nephew blocks Paternal-Nephew, Full Nephew’s-son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

k. Paternal-Nephew blocks Full-Nephew’s son, Paternal Nephew’s-son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

l. Full-Nephew’s son blocks Paternal-Nephew’s son, Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

m. Paternal-Nephew’s son blocks Full paternal-Uncle, Paternal paternal-uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

n. Full-paternal Uncle blocks Paternal-paternal uncle, Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

o. Paternal-paternal uncle blocks Full-cousin, Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

p. Full cousin blocks Paternal-Cousin, Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

q. Paternal-Cousin blocks Full cousin’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s-son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

r. Full-cousin’s son blocks Paternal-Cousin’s son, Full cousin’s son’s-son, Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

s. Paternal-Cousin’s son blocks Full cousin’s-son’s son, Paternal-Cousin’s son’s son

t. Full-cousin’s son’s son blocks Paternal Cousin’s son’s-son

14) Tasib-ranking in order
1. Son, daughter
2. Paternal-Grandson, paternal-Granddaughter
3. Father
4. Full-Brother, Full-sister (Kalaalah starts here)
5. Paternal-Brother, Paternal-Sister
6. Paternal-Grandfather
7. Full brother’s-son
8. Paternal-brother’s son
9. Full-brother’s son’s-son
10. Paternal-brother son’s son
11. Paternal-uncle (father’s full brother)
12. Paternal-paternal uncle (father’s paternal brother)
13. Paternal-uncle’s son (father’s brother’s son)
14. Paternal-paternal uncle’s son (father’s paternal brother’s son)
15. Paternal-uncle’s son’s son (father’s brother’s son’ s son)
16. Paternal-paternal uncle’s son’s son (father’s paternal brother’s son’s son)
17. Paternal-uncle’s son’s son’s son (father’s brother’s son’ s son’s son)
18. Paternal-paternal uncle’s son’s son’s son (father’s paternal brother’s son’s son’s son)
19. Emancipator
20. Emancipator’s independent Aaseebs

15) A male & female(both) of the same class receive shares with the ration of 2:1 [Surah-Nisa 4:11], [Surah-Nisa 4:176]. The following conditions should be met.
a. Male & female(both) are of the same class
b. This rule applie during the distribution of Residual-Shares, and not the distribution of Prescribed-Shares
c. This rule does not apply to maternal-siblings. They are either ways given from Prescribed-Shares

16) If an Heir is given the Prescribed-Share, he/she drops from Ta’seeb, if there are other Aaseebs qualified for inheritance
a. Father is an exception to this rule

17) A father or grandfather, can never be cut-off by the heirs with the Prescribed-Shares.

18) In ‘Awal Case, when total is more than 1, all shares should be reduced proportionately so that the total shares is 1(one) a. In case of Awal, and in the presence of Grand-father, sisters will be removed from the 2/3rd zone. Grand-father & sisters then will divide in the ratio of 2:1(Disturbing Case) )

19) In Radd Case, when total is less than 1(one), all shares, except the shares of spouse, should be increased proportionately so that the total share is 1. The spouse shares strictly fixed. They can not be increased unless no far relatives are found.

20) If husband is also a paternal-cousin(or his children), or an emancipator(or his relative), he should be treated as two individuals and distribution should be made for each(if qualified)

21) If Deceased person left behind a spouse, a father and a mother, but no children & multiple siblings, Umar’s calculations need to be applied.(Umar’s Fatawa)
a. Parents will not get their Prescribed-Share
b. Parents will share the remainder with the 2:1 ratio for father and mother
c. Multiple siblings can be reduced mothers-share, so that the Umar's case will not be longer to be a valid

22) A full-brother can-not be received less than the maternal-brother
a. Full-brothers should share equally with the maternal-siblings. Effectively, full-brothers are treated as maternal-siblings.
b. This does not apply to the paternal-brother(becoming maternal-brother)

23) If Deceased-person did not leave behind a father or childrens, but left behind at least grand-father & siblings, he has a special case a. A=1/6th of estate
b. B=1/3rd of remainder of shares
c. C=Treat grand-father like a brother and divide the shares equally amongs them
d. The grand-father will be given the maximum of A,B & C
e. If the grand-father’s share is causing the total shares to exceed 1(one), then the regular share of 1/6th will be given and the max of A,B,C rule will be ignored
f. If fractions sum exceeds 1(one), Awal should be applied; Grand-father’s share is not Ta’seeb in that case.
g. During that this calculation, Full-Sister and paternal-sisters share should be ex-cluded ( if they are in the 2/3rd zone )

24) If Deceased person did not leave behind a father or any children or any brother, but left behind at least a grand-father and a sister. If sister gets more than grand-father, then shares should be readjusted
a. Discard the prescribed-share of the sister
b. Sister & grand-father should share the remainder of estate with the ratio 1:2 Far Relatives

25) Dividing inheritance to non-standard for relatives replacing themselves with the link they are attached to who is qualified for the inheritance.

26) If there is still a remainder, then the remaining can now be given to the spouse, if spouse alive

27) If Deceased person has obsoletely no relatives, the Islamic state takes entire estate.

28) In the case of female heirs, inheritance stops at them & doesn't move on to their childrens as in case of the male heirs.

29) In absence of immediate-children, grand-children replace them as heirs

30) The 2/3rd zone
a. Certain females relative can get/received into this zone
b. The 4(four) possible relatives in this zone, they are – daughter, paternal grand-daughter, full-sister, paternal-sister
c. When a heir is inside this zone, she can not block any body
d. The male sibling of the same class can get her out of the 2/3rd zone
i. the Son for the daughter
ii. Paternal-grandson for the paternal-granddaughter
iii. Full-brother for the full-sister
iv. Paternal-brother for the paternal-sister
e. Female children can never be together with female siblings in 2/3rd zone. The female children can get/received the female siblings out of 2/3rd zone
f. Daughter and grand-daughter can not be given same share when in 2/3rd zone. Same applies for full-sister and paternal-sister. One is given 1/2th and other is given 1/6th.
g. Full-brother can get/receive the paternal-sister out of 2/3rd zone, actually completely blocked her.

31) The 2/3rd fraction is either for daughter-grand-daughter, or, full-sister paternal-sister. The 2/3rd can never be shared betweens female children and female siblings
32) Maternal-siblings can reduce mother’s-share
33) The maternal-siblings does not have 1:2 male and female ratio.
34) Father blocked full-siblings, paternal-siblings, & maternal-siblings
35) Following relatives can not be blocked
• Husband
• Wife
• Father
• Mother
• Son
• Daughter

36) Spouse can neither be block, nor can they blocked any body

37) Spouse share can not be increas, even if, there is no more standard heirs left. The far relatives are given priority first before in-creasing spouse’s share are

38) Role promotion when person is not alive
• Grand-father becomes a father
• Paternal grand-mother becomes a mother
• Grand-daughter become a daughter
• Sister becomes daughter
• Paternal-sister becomes a daughter

39) Maternal grand-father (mother’s father) is block from inheritance. His both male and female ancestors are also block. This is different from maternal grand-mother (mother’s mother). She gets inheritance. Also, her female ancestors can also get/receive inheritance, but not male ancestors.

40) The only female chain that continues indefinitely is mother’s-mother’s-mother’s ….

41) There is a difference of opinion on father blocking that the father’s mother. However, all agree that a mother can blocked father’s mother.

42) There is some difference of opinion on grand-father blocking siblings

43) Following relatives are not qualifi for the Ta’seeb
• Mother
• Paternal grand-mother
• Maternal grand-mother
• Husband
• Wife
• Maternal-Brother
• Maternal-Sister

44) Joint Ta’seebs are possible is only for the following casess
• Son and daughter
• Grand-son and Grand-daughter
• Full-brother and full-sister
• Paternal-brother and paternal-sister



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